ATLANTA–With vaccine rollout underway and picking up steam concurrent to emerging virus variants, Rajeev Dhawan of the Economic Forecasting Center at Georgia State University’s Robinson College of Business said recovery remains “an economic tango led by the virus. Reaching a sustained recovery by early 2022 is contingent on the speed and efficacy of vaccinations by mid-2021.”
“There is light at the end of the tunnel but it will take time, with ‘proper’ benefits to come as more people are vaccinated successfully,” Dhawan said. “We must relearn to walk before we can run again. This major biological shock rattled economic foundations.”
Assessing the past impact of stimulus payments, the forecaster pointed out that consumers spent them “rationally.”
“The most vulnerable who had to spend the checks last spring and this winter did so. Others who could afford to save, banked the funds or timed purchases to smoke out retailer incentives spurred by a Covid-19 sales slump in November and December.”
Consumer spending is beginning to return, with away-from-home food purchases up 4.4 percent, and sales of used cars and trucks up 10 percent year-over-year. Also rising: sales of watches and jewelry, which dropped 50 percent during the first two months of the pandemic. Today, watch and jewelry sales are up 20 percent over this time last year.
“Who’s buying all these watches and jewelry? We don’t know. But couples who have been confined together at home and perhaps postponed weddings, may be spending money they saved on peace offerings,” said Dhawan.
Proposed federal-level spending, immaterial of amount, will boost consumer spending for only a short while, followed by an inevitable reversion to the mean in subsequent quarters as stimulus funds run out.
“Real recovery will depend on people feeling comfortable interacting with each other – eating out, attending meetings, going to movies and concerts, and sightseeing,” said Dhawan.
Georgia and Atlanta did not take as hard a job-loss hit as the nation overall when the coronavirus shut down the economy in spring 2020. U.S. employment plunged 14 percent, compared to an 11 percent drop in Georgia. The area’s recovery also has been faster than the nation’s, which Dhawan attributed to Georgia’s relatively brief shutdown compared to the rest of the nation (notably California and Northeastern states).
“Today, the U.S. economy is down six percent by the employment metric, compared to only two percent in Georgia,” Dhawan said at a Feb 25 conference. “That sounds good until one takes a closer look at the performance of the state’s catalyst sectors of well-paying jobs, which is where job growth starts and the multiplier effect fuels downstream activity.”
The forecaster explained that the crucial catalyst sectors – corporate jobs, information technology, business services, manufacturing and transportation – experienced the same sharp eight percent drop in jobs in Georgia as experienced in the U.S. And when it came to recovery, Georgia has not outpaced the nation in this critical income generating category.
“Net-net, the overall job recovery deficit may be only 20 percent. But for high paying jobs it is close to 50 percent. Quality of jobs is a metric by which recovery still lags in the state,” said Dhawan.
One area where economic forces seem to be immaterial at the moment is homebuying, with more purchasers opting to buy single family homes further out instead of high-rise condominiums in the city’s core. How long this change in preference, or demand shock, will last is unknown.
“The rocket recovery of the stock market last spring that has continued into 2021, in conjunction with sharply falling mortgage rates, has helped consumers purchase homes.”
The Federal Reserve dropped its benchmark rate to near zero in March 2020, with subsequent quantitative measures to help shore up the mortgage market, making clear it will not raise rates until recovery fully takes hold.
“The Fed will stand pat until at least until 2023 or even later. But mortgage rates will start rising this year as the long-bond yield climbs in coming quarters. This is not just due to mild inflationary conditions expected from the consumer binge due to additional fiscal stimulus,” said Dhawan.
“The reason for a rise in bond yields is classic demand and supply of investable funds when looked at from a global perspective,” Dhawan said. “As we recover, and so does the rest of the world, rising demand for capital expenditures/investment spending by corporations that is a precursor to job growth will put upward pressure on mortgage interest rates.”
“Whether or not the housing boom continues and outlasts the coronavirus crisis hinges on stock market performance, which is a random factor in this recovery story,” said Dhawan.
Highlights from Rajeev Dhawan’s Economic Forecast
- Overall GDP growth will be 4.9 percent in 2021, 3.9 percent in 2022 and 2.9 percent in 2023.
- Investment growth will be only 7.2 percent in 2021, 5.4 percent in 2022 and 6.1 percent in 2023. Monthly job gains will be 298,000 in 2021, rise to 414,000 in 2022 and moderate to 202,900 in 2023.
- Housing starts will average 1.474 million in 2021, 1.339 million in 2022 and 1.272 million in 2023. Vehicle sales will average 16.7 million in 2021, 17.0 million in 2022 and 17.4 million in 2023.
- CPI inflation will be 2.3 percent in 2021, rise to 2.6 percent in 2022, and then moderate a bit to 2.4 percent in 2023. The 10-year bond rate will average 1.6 percent in 2021, 2.2 percent in 2022 and 2.6 percent in 2023.
Georgia and Atlanta
- Georgia will add 68,900 jobs (13,200 premium jobs) in 2021, gain a better 100,000 jobs (33,700 premium) in 2022 and increase by 77,100 (19,700 premium) in 2023.
- Nominal personal income will grow 4.0 percent in 2021, moderate to 0.6 percent in 2022 and rise 4.2 percent in 2023.
- Atlanta will add 54,000 jobs (11,900 premium positions) in 2021, grow by 86,600 jobs (29,400 premium) in 2022 and a further 64,900 jobs (17,000 premium) in 2023.
- Atlanta housing permitting activity will increase by 5.8 percent in 2021, decline mildly by 0.6 percent in 2022, then rise by 3.0 percent in 2023.
ATLANTA–Having the Federal Reserve on hold for the foreseeable future, bipartisan agreement on fiscal spending and the signed phase one tariff deal with China have reduced the uncertainty that typically bedevil growth prospects, according to Rajeev Dhawan of the Economic Forecasting Center at Georgia State University’s Robinson College of Business.
“The seeds for 2020 growth were sown last year,” Dhawan wrote in his “Forecast of the Nation,” released Feb. 26, 2020. “In early 2019, business investment was already waning (after the boost from the Dec. 2017 tax reforms) when it hit a few potholes.”
Those potholes were the shocks of a sharp drop in oil prices and the grounding of Boeing’s 737 MAX, causing a contraction in business spending by late 2019.
“The die was cast for a growth slowdown in 2020,” Dhawan said.
The typical economic pullback experienced during a presidential election year began earlier than usual this cycle when election rhetoric heated up ahead of when expected.
Dhawan posits that subpar GDP growth (1.6 percent) in the first half of 2020 will be followed by a ramped-up GDP of 2.0 percent in the year’s second half due to a “positive exigent circumstance” when the 737 MAX returns to the skies in mid-to-late summer – tempering the impact of the ongoing presidential cycle slowdown.
Potential curveballs could beset Dhawan’s baseline forecast, the most obvious being a delayed return of the 737 MAX.
The forecaster is more concerned about what he described as “irksome geopolitical concerns” – e.g., Middle East flare-ups affecting oil production and capacity, kinks in the trade deal with China, post-Brexit uncertainty in EU-UK relations, action on past threats about German auto exports, and COVID-19, the coronavirus that first appeared in late 2019 in Hubei province, China, which Dhawan said is “the biggest threat to the 2020 forecast.
“At present, the key issue for us the incidence of spread of the virus outside China, and the Chinese have taken steps to limit it,” Dhawan said. “But, unlike a finite event, such as a hurricane or earthquake, the coronavirus is still playing out, making it hard to assess economic impact.”
The biggest economic problem now, according to Dhawan, is that factory workers are stuck at home after the Chinese New Year holiday.
“China is a vital part of the world’s supply chain for goods ranging from toys to iPhones. For an economic impact to happen, this disruption would need to last awhile, say until mid-April. When inventories run out, what will Amazon sell here? What will Apple and Samsung do?” Dhawan asked. “This is what I worry about the most.”
Highlights from the Economic Forecasting Center’s National Report
- Overall GDP growth will be 1.8 percent in 2020, 2.0 percent in 2021 and 1.7 percent in 2022.
- Investment growth will be only 0.6 percent in 2020, 4.3 percent in 2021 and 3.6 percent in 2022. Monthly job gains will be 143,000 in 2020, drop to 104,200 in 2021 and a similar 94,400 in 2022.
- Housing starts will average 1.258 million in 2020, 1.224 million in 2021 and 1.234 million in 2022. Vehicle sales will average 16.3 million in 2020, and 16.0 million in 2021 and 2022.
- The 10-year bond rate will average 1.9 percent in 2020, 2.7 percent in 2021 and 3.0 percent in 2022.
ATLANTA–A maturing business cycle, the ongoing global slowdown, and the U.S.-China trade spat are fostering a deteriorating business investment climate, and a slowdown in job growth has made consumers wary of spending, according to Rajeev Dhawan of the Economic Forecasting Center at Georgia State University’s Robinson College of Business.
“Investments are always a risky bet. And as the amount of uncertainty rises, investment spending is the first to suffer,” Dhawan wrote in his “Forecast of the Nation,” released today (Nov. 20, 2019).
The Global Economic Policy Uncertainty Index, at its highest level since 1997, has been extremely elevated for the past 18 months. Dhawan attributes the uncertainty in no small part to the imposition of tariffs by the world’s two largest trading partners, the U.S. and China, on each other’s exports.
“Although there are other trade skirmishes [between Japan and Korea, the ongoing Brexit saga, the Catalonia secession in Spain, and even the September missile attack on Saudi oil facilities] the U.S.-China trade spat takes center stage.”
The forecaster posits that as management of U.S.-based global companies consider moving factories out of China and undoing supply chains they spent decades establishing, “their primary focus is on the vexing issue of building new supply chains and not on expanding existing business capacity, i.e. hiring.”
The fallout is readily apparent in investment growth rates. Business investment declined 3.0 percent in the third quarter of 2019, after dropping 1.0 in the previous quarter, which was a dramatic contrast to the first half of 2018, when investment grew 8.4 percent following the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017. Two other factors, or shocks, contributed to weak investment – reduced fracking investment due to falling oil prices, and the impact of the March 2019 grounding of the Boeing 737 MAX on high tech manufacturing. Looking forward, the Institute for Supply Management Manufacturing Index is below 50, signaling future contraction in the industrial sector.
As for consumer confidence, a 10-point market drop since Aug. 2019 could signal a consumption growth slowdown. The last three Federal Reserve rate cuts should have boosted consumption by lowering interest rates for car loans and on new or refinanced mortgages. However, Oct. 2019 vehicle sales of 16.5 million units were much lower than the average 17.0 million units sold the previous three months.
Damage from the last few quarters of deficient investment growth will be evident in subpar GDP growth, less than 1.5 percent on average in the coming quarters. And Dhawan characterizes business investment equipment growth as “nonexistent” until Boeing’s woes end in mid-2020.
“As growth drops well below the 1.8 percent growth potential, the Fed will be forced to cut rates several times in early 2020, most likely during the March and June meetings of the Federal Open Market Committee,” Dhawan said.
Even with these cuts, Dhawan anticipates GDP growth to drop to 2.3 percent in 2019, then decline to 1.5 percent in 2020 and improve to 1.8 percent in 2021.
“The election will be over by 2021, hopefully, and no matter who is in the White House, businesses can plan again with somewhat more certainty than at present,” Dhawan said.
Highlights from the Economic Forecasting Center’s National Report
- Overall GDP growth will be 2.3 percent in 2019, 1.5 percent in 2020 and 1.8 percent in 2021.
- Investment growth will be 2.2 percent in 2019, 0.3 percent in 2020 and 2.5 percent in 2021. Monthly job gains will be 165,300 in 2019, drop to 90,600 in 2020 and rise to 94,700 in 2021.
- Housing starts will average 1.256 million in 2019, 1.215 million in 2020 and 1.220 million in 2021. Vehicle sales will average 16.9 million in 2019, 15.8 million in 2020 and 15.5 million in 2021.
- The 10-year bond rate will average 2.1 percent in 2019 and 2020, then rise to 2.7 percent in 2021.
ATLANTA–Trade tensions, a reduction in business investment and an earlier than usual presidential election swoon are contributing to a lowered growth path for 2020-21, according to Rajeev Dhawan of the Economic Forecasting Center at Georgia State University’s Robinson College of Business.
“Economic growth will take an oscillatory path, known as transition economics, to reach this lower level,” Dhawan wrote in his “Forecast of the Nation,” released Aug. 28, 2019.
“There is never a single reason for a downgrade, but the chief culprit for this one and its zigzag is the evolution of business investment from mid-2018 until now,” Dhawan said. “Investment contractions are a bad sign for future growth unless there are mitigating circumstances.”
One such mitigating circumstance affecting equipment investment was the March grounding of Boeing’s 737 MAX, which has spread downstream to suppliers such as General Electric (engines) and numerous parts makers across the country.
“This investment category will rebound at some point, but don’t count on help from those parked planes before early next year,” Dhawan said.
Also in retreat: investment spending on structures (commercial buildings, mining and fracking wells) dropped 10.6 percent in the second quarter of the year.
“The commercial sector seems to be pulling back on its building desire, despite good consumer spending,” Dhawan said. “The reason is the future seems more uncertain today than a year ago, when tariffs were a negotiating ploy and not a reality, as they are now.”
As for fracking, low oil prices are keeping well below the breakeven price per barrel, which Dhawan attributes to lowered demand from China.
“It seems unlikely that U.S.-Chinese trade tensions will ratchet down anytime soon,” he said. “And corporations, with their globally integrated supply chains, are spooked by the tit-for-tat tariff game. Investment is not expected to rebound to its mid-2018 high following the December 2017 tax cuts.”
Dhawan expects the Federal Reserve will cut rates in September, and then pause to observe concrete evidence of the anticipated growth slowdown. He then expects the Fed will decrease rates again in December, leading to a limited boost in home refinancing activity.
“A sharp drop in the 10-year bond rate since the Fed’s rate cut of July 31 is mostly due to global capital seeking a safe haven,” Dhawan said. “What cannot be forecast is when this fear-motivated flight to safety will end. If the move to 10-year bonds persists it will further depress the growth trajectory and keep the yield curve inverted longer, which would require deeper (emergency) rate cuts by the Fed.”
Highlights from the Economic Forecasting Center’s National Report
- Overall GDP growth will be 2.3 percent in 2019, 1.7 percent in 2020 and 2.0 percent in 2021.
- Investment growth will be 2.9 percent in 2019, 1.7 percent in 2020 and then rise to 3.2 percent in 2021. Monthly job gains will moderate to 153,000 in 2019, drop to 118,600 in 2020 and gain 116,900 new monthly jobs in 2021.
- Housing starts will average 1.225 million in 2019, 1.228 million in 2020 and then increase to 1.265 million in 2021. Vehicle sales will average 16.7 million in 2019, 15.9 million in 2020 and 16.0 million in 2021.
- The 10-year bond rate will average 2.1 percent in 2019, 2.2 percent in 2020 and rise to 2.5 percent in 2021.
- percent in 2019, decline 6.0 percent in 2020 and fall another 3.0 percent in 2021.
ATLANTA–Stuttering global growth and escalating trade tiffs that are affecting national economic prospects are also being felt in Georgia across many employment sectors, according to Rajeev Dhawan of the Economic Forecasting Center at Georgia State University’s Robinson College of Business.
In his quarterly “Forecast of Georgia and Atlanta,” Dhawan wrote that he expects two Federal Reserve rate cuts before 2019 ends, asking, “Will these extra cuts help us negate the fallout from our trade spats? And what relief will it provide at the state and Atlanta metro levels?”
The forecaster’s answer to these questions is mixed. Yes, lower rates should help with interest-sensitive sectors such as home refinancing, vehicle sales and small business loans.
“But, these rate cuts cannot overcome the hesitation of big corporations to undertake the capital expansions that determine future job growth,” said Dhawan in the report released Aug. 28, 2019. “These firms are global in scope and dependent on external markets for a big proportion of their revenues.”
A case in point is Delta Air Lines. The state’s largest corporate employer collects 30 percent of its passenger revenue from international operations. In the second quarter of 2019, its global sector grew by 5.2 percent, compared to 8.7 percent for the same period in 2018.
The Port of Savannah, another transportation crown jewel, is largely responsible for driving the economic growth of the Savannah metro area. In mid-2018, Savannah’s job growth was 2.7 percent, outpacing the state’s job growth rate of 1.9 percent when global trade volumes were good. But by June 2019, Savannah’s growth rate dropped to 1.2 percent, putting it below the state’s 1.7 percent growth as the global economy cooled.
“Globally connected sectors and areas grow higher than average when the world economy is booming, but they decelerate sharply when the tide turns,” Dhawan said.
The global health of Fortune 500 companies headquartered in Georgia determines the hiring of managerial jobs in Atlanta, which has a multiplier effect on downstream sectors.
Domestic demand sectors are performing better than globally connected ones, particularly hospitality (historically high occupancy rates), education (growing due to population growth), healthcare (overall population growth and aging) and construction (new hotel, office and apartment developments).
“Fed rate cuts will alleviate the pain somewhat, and relatively clear skies will emerge, but without a rainbow,” said Dhawan.
Highlights from the Economic Forecasting Center’s Report for Georgia and Atlanta
- Georgia employment will add 65,200 jobs (11,400 premium jobs) in 2019, gain 53,500 jobs (9,400 premium) in 2020 and increase by 48,200 (9,700 premium) in 2021.
- Nominal personal income will grow 4.3 percent in 2019, then increase by a better 5.1 percent in 2020 and 2021.
- Atlanta will add 45,300 jobs (7,900 premium positions) in 2019, moderate to 37,900 jobs (7,200 premium) in 2020 and 35,600 jobs (7,300 premium) in 2021.
- Atlanta housing permitting activity will fall 18.9