By Loren Marc Schmerler, President and Founder of Bottom Line Management, Inc., an Atlanta-based business brokerage, M & A and consulting firm.
1. Do You WANT to Sell? Make sure you really “want” to sell. Ask yourself if you are bored, burned out, ill, have a new child, have aging parents that need your assistance, etc. Or are you simply unhappy with how much money you are making? If this is the case, you do not “need” to sell. All you need is some guidance getting back on the right track.
An experienced business consultant can help you refocus and see the forest for the trees. You might find out that once you start making enough money, you do not want to sell after all. But if you conclude that selling is what you want to do regardless of how much money you are making, then you need to proceed to the next step.
2. Does Your Business Have Curb Appeal? After you positive that you want to sell your business, I suggest that you drive up to your business and review it objectively. Are there any holes in your parking lot? Fix them before a buyer shows up. Is any of the shrubbery dead or out of control? Replace dead landscape plants, weed where appropriate and get shrubs properly trimmed.
Clean any dirty windows. If the building exterior is dirty, get it pressure-washed. Paint the building. Get a new roof or replace bad shingles. In brief, make sure the “curb appeal” of your business has no obvious and easily correctible issues.
3. Is the Interior Appealing? Examine the interior of your business from top to bottom, starting with the ceilings. Are there any water stains from roof leaks? If so, fix the leaks and replace the tiles. Get on a ladder and replace burned-out lights with new and shiny bulbs. Does any of the furniture look ratty? If so, either repair it or replace it.
Repaint the walls to hide scrape marks on the walls. How about your employees’ desks? Do they look organized or out of control? Insist that your employees maintain neat and orderly working areas. How about the restrooms? If they’re an embarrassment, clean them up and keep them clean. Are they handicapped accessible? If not, make arrangements to bring them up to code. Look at your office with a keen eye. Remember that when the buyer tours your business, you want them to visualize becoming the owner and being proud to do so.
4. Job Descriptions Updated? Review your job descriptions, policies and procedures. First, draft your own job description that covers what you do daily, weekly, monthly, quarterly, semi-annually and annually. It should be very detailed. Make certain you have someone proofread the job description and correct any grammar or spelling errors.
After you are satisfied with your job description, ask all your employees to do the same. This process has several benefits. First, your employees will see how much they actually do. Second, it will give you a chance to see if they are doing what you think they are doing. Third, it will tell you whether they are doing what they should be doing. When all the job descriptions are complete and typed, place them in a binder labeled “Job Descriptions.” Then you will move on to policies and procedures.
5. Policies and Procedures? Now that you know what you do and what all your employees do, it’s time for policies, procedures and controls. With regard to employees, you need to cover hiring, evaluations, probations, vacation, sick days, holidays, etc. If your company has positions in which employees must have background checks, drug tests, reference checks, etc., you need to speak with a labor attorney to dot all your i’s and cross all your t’s.
When asking a prospective employee to complete an application, stay away from questions that deal with pregnancy, military status, race, national origin, etc. If you decide to hire an employee, make sure they complete a W-4 form, an I-9 form and the appropriate state form. Should your labor pool have a large number of Hispanics, you will need to consult with a labor attorney to ensure you do not hire illegal immigrants which could result in severe penalties. With regard to vacations and sick pay, it is best to let them accrue a day or less for each month worked.
6. Employee Evaluations? Employees are critical to the success of a business, so you must be current with all employee evaluations. Employee morale can be devastated if reviews are delayed or not given at all. Plus, it is grossly unfair to ask a new owner to review employees with whom they have never interacted. A prospective owner will most certainly ask about employee turnover and employee tenure. But one question that is rarely or ever asked is whether you have any “problem” employees.
That brings up the issue of probation. Probation can be a way to successfully rehabilitate a wayward employee, or it can be the final process to document a termination in such a manner that a legal challenge to the termination will not prevail. When an employee is put on probation, the leash should be very short. The employee must know exactly what behavior will be tolerated and what behavior will lead to immediate termination. Interestingly enough, putting a person on probation sometimes leads to an outstanding employee.
7. Are Financials Current? Nothing frustrates a prospective purchaser more than asking for current financial statements and tax returns and being told that they are not available. Worse yet is being told you cannot say when they will become available. Talk about red flags. How can you run a business without current and accurate financial statements? The short answer is that you cannot do so. As a business owner, you must anticipate the purchaser’s questions regarding all financial matters and have current statements to defend your answers.
When I say financial statements, most people think of a profit and loss statement (also called the income statement.) But the balance sheet is equally important. The combination of these statements tells you whether a business is losing money and gives you a picture of the company’s financial health. There are certain subtleties to keep in mind. For instance, a high level of inventory can indicate several different things. Maybe much of it is obsolete or slow-moving. It can be a purchasing mistake that will hurt a business or a brilliant purchase at a great cost. Only with thorough investigation will you determine the true answer.
8. Are Taxes Up-to-Date? Have you filed all your tax returns? Specifically, I mean monthly sales tax, monthly state withholding, quarterly payroll taxes, quarterly state unemployment insurance, annual unemployment insurance, annual ad valorem, annual corporate tax, annual state tax and any local, county, city or other special taxes. It is absolutely critical that you are current with all these returns to instill confidence in the prospective purchaser. If you have not filed and paid all sales tax returns, there are very negative consequences. The penalties and interest are exorbitant, but in addition, unpaid sales taxes become the responsibility of the new owner. I was once at the closing table waiting for the checks to be written when the Georgia Department of Revenue called and told the closing attorney that the seller had not paid sales tax for the last three years. Upon hearing this, the buyer stood up and left the closing. Needless to say, the company was not sold and eventually shut its doors.
Speaking of taxes, you need to have a heart-to-heart talk with your CPA regarding taxes when you sell your business. Should the sale be an asset sale? Should the sale be a stock sale? There are bonafide reasons for each type sale. An asset sale limits your exposure for past liabilities, errors and omissions. An example would be a product liability claim for a structure or machine that becomes faulty. A stock sale allows for ease of transferring contracts presently in force. A stock sale is also critical in the medical industry when a Medicare number might be involved. But there is another angle. The stock sale allows for the company to be sold for less money while still letting the owner realize the same or greater after-tax position.
9. Prepared for Due Diligence? What is due diligence, and how do you prepare for it? Due diligence is the process where the buyer tries to validate everything you have represented both verbally and in writing. The buyer will scrutinize your financial records, your legal records, your employment records, etc. With financial records, the process starts with the tax returns, goes backwards to the financial statements, then to the general ledger, then to all source documents that include bank statements, deposit slips, check stubs, canceled checks, vendor invoices, client/customer statements, etc.
To prepare for the financial scrutiny that accompanies due diligence you should assemble tax returns, financial statements, general ledgers, bank statements, deposit slips, check stubs, cancelled checks, vendor invoices, client/customer statements, etc. for the last three years. Tax returns, financial statements and related items should be in date order from the most current to the oldest. Vendor invoices and client/customer statements should be in alphabetical order first and then in date order for each vendor or client/customer. Employment records should be filed alphabetically, but you better make sure you have a W-4 form, an I-9 form and a state form (G-4 for Georgia) for every employee.
10. Are You a Legal Entity? There is a legal side to the due diligence process as well. Are you a valid legal entity such as a partnership, corporation or LLC? Is your annual filing of officers and registered agent current? Have you maintained your Corporate Minutes and held annual Board of Directors and Shareholders meetings? If you have outstanding liens for debts that have been paid off, you need to contact the creditor and ask them to remove them. If this is not done, the closing attorney will have to withhold funds in escrow until the actual status can be determined.
Have you paid all payroll taxes? If not, you may have undermined a possible sale. Have you paid all sales taxes that are due? If not, I can tell you from personal experience that this can demolish a probable sale. Is there any outstanding litigation that affects you as either a plaintiff or a defendant? Are all your employees legal, and do you have proof? Are there any patents, trademarks or service marks that need to be protected? If real estate is involved, do you have a deed to prove ownership? Do you have a plat that clearly shows boundaries of the property? Do you have any contracts with vendors or clients/customers? Is your company minority owned, and if so, how would a change in ownership affect your business?
An experienced business broker can guide you through answering all of these questions, which will help to speed the sale of your business.
Loren Marc Schmerler‘s company, Bottom Line Management, Inc., (BLM) provides top quality, proven business brokerage services to buyers and sellers who want to control their own destiny and build future equity for themselves and their families. Since 1987, buyers and sellers have trusted Bottom Line Management, Inc., to provide ethical, professional and personalized business brokerage and consulting services based on the company’s in-depth knowledge of current market and industry conditions. BLM helps business owners successfully navigate one of the major financial business transactions of their lives, whether that transaction involves selling their own business or buying another business. The company’s headquarters are located in Atlanta, GA. Loren’s phone number is 470-990-0160
It’s exciting to buy a new business. However, it’s very important to be realistic about future growth. In most cases, if a business is poised to quickly grow substantially, the seller would be far less interested in selling.
When evaluating a business and talking to the owner, many buyers come away with a sense that enormous growth is just “sitting there” waiting to be seized, writes Richard Parker, President of Diomo Corporation – The Business Buyer Resource Center. In a recent article for Forbes entitled “Don’t Be Delusional About Growth When Buying a Business,” Parker seeks to instill a smart degree of caution into prospective buyers. Parker, who works with investors buying and selling small businesses, says buyers should be very careful if they are buying into an industry that they know nothing about.
Buying into an industry you don’t know comes with a lot of potential problems. The opportunities that you see may not have been tapped into by the existing owner for many reasons, Parker says. Without knowing more about the industry, you’re unlikely to spot those problems. Since you are an outsider, you likely lack the proper perspective and understanding. The seller may have already tried and failed at the growth opportunities you’ve identified. Until you actually own the business and are running it on a day to day basis, you can’t make a proper assessment of how best to grow that business.
The seductive lure of growth shouldn’t be the determining factor when you are looking for a business. A far more important and ultimately reliable factor is stability. “The key question to address is whether or not the business will maintain its revenue and profit levels after you take over,” Parker advises. A business that doesn’t have to grow to remain viable is a better value.
As Parker points out, the majority of small business buyers will buy in a sector where they don’t have much experience, and that is fine. It’s more important that the buyer “has the core skills to operate and drive the business than having direct industry experience.” What is not fine is paying a lot for a business because you believe you can greatly grow the business. If you can, that’s great and certainly icing on the cake. But Parker says you shouldn’t depend on that growth.
In the end, everyone has some ideas that work and some that don’t. You may take over a business and, thanks to having a different perspective than the previous owner, you find ways to make that business grow. Just realize that many of your ideas for growing the business may fail completely.
“To be a successful business buyer, your approach has to be effective, realistic and practical,” Parker says. “Don’t fall in love with the business or fall prey to your own sales job. You have to evaluate all scenarios and adopt the philosophy that stability is a top priority.”
A professional business broker will be able to help you determine what business is best for you, and to determine a fair asking price for that business. A business broker will help keep you focused on what matters most and steer you clear of the mistakes that buyers frequently make when buying a business.
Entrepreneur Scott Ward has been on both sides of the negotiating table, both as a business buyer and a business seller. He discussed better ways to work with prospective business sellers, to prepare a business to sell and other insights at the Sept. 24 meeting of the Georgia Association of Business Brokers.
Ward said business brokers “enable people to succeed and bring in hard earned assets and turn it into cash.”
He said in the middle of negotiating a deal, sometimes he feels as though his client needs a marketing officer, a human resources officer, a financial analyst or even a psychiatrist, trying to work through some complex business and personal relationships.
“You’re so much more than just a business broker,” Ward told the members of GABB, the state’s largest professional organization dedicated to buying and selling Georgia businesses and franchises.
The key is for business brokers to build long-term relationships with business owners, what he called keeping your pipeline full.
“The number one thing with filling your pipeline and getting more people to think about you —because you guys have a long pipeline– you’re building relationships that sometimes take years before someone actually says, ‘You know I think I’m ready to sell this business,’ or ‘I’m ready to quit my corporate job.’ ” Ward said.
Watch the full presentation on the GABB’s YouTube Channel.
Scott is a long time multistore franchisee of Winmark Corporation, the franchisor for brands Play It Again Sports, Plato’s Closet Once Upon A Child, Music Go Round and Style Encore. After 28 years as a franchisee, Scott recently sold his last Play It Again Sports location and will speak about his strategic five year plan he executed to enhance value, create potential buyers and market to sell for a premium. Scott worked with and without brokers during this process.
Ward earned a grass roots MBA as a successful business owner for more than 20 years with proven ability to rapidly grow and profit despite enduring three recessions. He was a dedicated leader who mentored five employees to successfully own their own franchise businesses. He is especially skilled at gaining insight into stakeholders weaknesses and strengths through communication.
As the owner-operator of Play It Again Sports franchises, now publicly traded under Winmark Corporation, Ward maintained business growth through three recessions and contributed to the eventual stability of what is now one of the oldest and largest sporting goods entities in North America. He successfully sold his business for full valuation and continued to menter the new owner. Elected to the Winmark Corporation Franchise Advisory Council, he also was chosen chairman for seven years. He teaches speech writing, evaluation and idea generation for Toastmasters.
The GABB is the state’s largest and oldest association of professionals who specialize in brokering the purchase and sale of businesses and franchises. Broker members help owners determine the asking price of their business, create marketing plans and strategies for selling their business, identify and qualify buyers, and have the knowledge, experience and skills needed to help maintain the confidential nature of the process. The professionals of GABB relentlessly pursue professional development so they can provide superior, ethical services for all customers and clients. Affiliate members include bankers, lawyers, appraisers, insurers and other professionals who work closely with brokers to help owners and buyers get to the closing table.
For more information about GABB, please contact GABB President Dean Burnette at 912-247-3209 or firstname.lastname@example.org, or GABB Executive Director Diane Loupe at email@example.com or 404-374-3990.
No one keeps a business forever. At some point, you’ll either want to sell your business or have to retire. When you’re ready to sell, it is important to streamline the process, minimize the stress, and also receive top dollar. In a recent Forbes magazine article, “How to Find a Buyer for Your Business,”serial entrepreneur Alejandro Cremades explores the most important steps business owners should take when looking to sell.
Like so many things in life, finding a buyer for your business is about preparation. Cremades, author of The Art of Startup Fundraising, says you should start thinking about selling your business on the day you found your company. Creating a business but having no exit strategy is simply not a good idea, and it’s certainly not a safe strategy either. Instead you should “build and plan to be acquired.”
For Cremades, it is vital to decide in the beginning if your preferred exit strategy is to be acquired. If you know from the beginning that you wish to be acquired, then you should build your business accordingly from day one. That means it’s essential to understand your market and know what prospective buyers would be looking for.
According to the the Kauffman Fellows Leadership Development Program, acquirers buy businesses for a range of reasons including:
- Driving their own growth
- Expanding their market
- Accelerating time to market
- Consolidating the market
- Reinventing their own business
- Responding to disruption
Startups should be prepared to answer these questions:
- How profitable is the company
- Size of total addressable market
- What are the top line revenues
- How much are gross profit margins
- Are customers retail consumers, SMB clients or enterprise level
- Customer churn rates
- Customer satisfaction ratings
- Value of contracts
Additionally, it is critical to make connections. “Strategic acquisitions are about who you know, and who knows you,” says Cremades. “Start making those connections early.” Buyers are not always who one expects in the beginning of the process. Keeping this fact in mind, it is important to stay open and always look to build solid relationships and keep those relationships up to date regarding your status. Getting your company acquired won’t happen overnight. Instead, it is a process that can take years. Therefore, networking years in advance is a must.
Like many seasoned business professionals, Cremades realizes how important it is to work with a business broker. Cremades says brokers “can help make introductions, hype up the opportunity, demonstrate the value, create a bidding war, manage the process and hopefully get you more for your company. That’s their job. The more they get you, the more they get paid.”
If you have failed to network properly over the years, then a broker is an amazingly valuable ally. They are about more than offering sage advice, as business brokers can also make potentially invaluable introductions and help you navigate every stage of the acquisition process.
“A talented team alone may warrant a bigger company buying your startup,” Cremades says. “So, hire the best. Who you put on your board can make it very easy (or more challenging) to get your company acquired as well. What experience do they have in M&A transactions? Who do they know that will also invest or may want to buy you out?”
By C. David Chambless, president of Abraxas Business Services
Accountants routinely assist business owners to help accomplish the goal of minimizing taxes. But, to truly understand the value of the business and accurately project future cash flow, it is important to look beyond the tax returns to realize how the money is being spent.